How was born blonde beer
How was born blonde beer
A yeast from Patagonia, made by chance in Europe in the fifteenth century, gave birth to blonde beer - Lager - produced by fermentation cold, so popular today in the world, the authors of a study announced Monday in the United States.
This yeast, called "Saccharomyces eubayanus" would have been transported 500 years ago, on a beach in South America on a piece of wood or the stomach to fly drosofile to get in a cellar or a monastery in Bavaria, where beer manufacturers kept their products, says the study.
Yeast "immigrant" merged with "cousin" removed, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", a yeast used for millennia in Europe and Asia to make bread dough rise and fermentation of wine and beer.
The resulting hybrid yeast allowed to obtain pale ale called "lager" since the XVth century in Bavaria, explain the authors, whose study was published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
Currently, blonde beer world market, which represents most brands of beer, worth about 250 billion dollars per year.
Scientists and beer producers knew a long time that yeast capable of producing a fermentation at low temperatures was actually a hybrid, but did not know until this study the nature of microorganisms that merged with "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" to obtain such property.
All research carried out on known yeast species - over 100 - have failed to study.
"I was looking for this for decades," said Chris Todd Hittinger, professor of genetics at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, author of the study.
"Now that we found, we know that it is without doubt the missing species to obtain the hybrid yeast fermentation that allows a cold beer. The only thing that does not know yet is whether a similar hybrid species there somewhere nature in the wild, undiscovered, "he added.
Discovering new species of yeast is the result of a mysterious large-scale study, coordinated by Jose Paulo Sampaio and Paula Goncalves, the New Lisbon University in Portugal.
One of their collaborators from the Institute for Biodiversity and Environmental Research in Argentina has discovered the organism in mites infecting phages in Patagonia, whose DNA is like a lot mid-DNA hybrid yeast lager beer fermentation allows.
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