Soil Fertilization part 6

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Drought and hot weather there is so strong that netăvălugit soil begins to crack, hence care must be appropriate plants and planted rollers are doomed final.

Drill-pieces using batch more or less flat, where, without much care can resemble roots. But I inducing slopes and incorporated by spreading the seeds with three furrows Ransom plow as a result receive also good.

The three little plow furrows can be attached to a drill that would sow the ground strips 30 cm wide, not as a result we get drill-pieces, no drill, arranged in rows, which requires a very thorough job of soil.


Distribution of grain will not be as accurate as the drill. But more than that for sowing by scattering.

Six times in a 30 cm strip of them I have to seeding grasses: rye, wheat, oats, barley and flax.

At sowing-leaved plants, I have to strip less clutch. So I do the strip for the bob 4 rows mac - 2 for rape - two for soybeans - 2, etc..

For grains, the distance between the strip mouldboard is 10 cm, poppy, rape - from 7.5 to 8 cm.

After sowing, the plants, as I mentioned, is certainly pop up, and after that, to our southern sun begins to bake. The soil is hot and crack.

This causes air to be impossible irrigation, which in our cultivation system plays an important role.

Therefore, after sowing, plants must switched to care, by defending the training ground cracks and overheating and to enable the young plants to develop normally until that moment, when they independently, appropriately, will shade the soil and that it will defend the harmful influence of sunlight. "

Chapter XII. Caring for the soil and plants after sowing

"After planting plants without rain are springing up rapidly and begin to pârjolească under the scorching rays of the sun. The soil is hot and begins to crack.

When I turn on the strip-lines prăşitoarele, filling cracks and protects the soil from drying.

If we use prăşitoarea for more rows at once, then this process would cost little bit.

Prăşitorile exploit them twice in autumn, spring hoeing but two or three times, as winter crops and the spring, depending on how dry or hard packed soil after rain, etc..

Crops sown by scattering them cover the harrow as soon as plants are set into the ground in so that they can not tear harrow.

The shallow plowing, this period occurs rapidly and seedlings are kept well in the capillary layer.

Press harrow soil and plants to bend them, following harrow pass second time in two days, when plants are raised. That's because grăpatul twice in a row on the same day would have affected even more plants.

Over two days, if I notice that there are cracks going to harrow the third time after this procedure when it rains and beat the ground, then after the rain once they pass with the harrow.

Most economists in the first year dealing with such operations, performed during the sweltering heat with great surprise.

They are confident that after passing the harrow, the plants will dry out completely. But the following year became ardent followers of harrow to use not only winter crops, which are already accustomed to or what, but the spring crop, which is new to them.

This year (1898) I met the same opposition in the spring. But when they saw that winter crops after each procedure as harrowing reeling after rain, they were followers of grăpatului. The next year they will use harrows and without my guidance.

Indeed, only the intense use of harrow in the spring crop has saved them from destruction this year.

They were planted on the southern slope, with no autumn tillage, shallow tillage using against the will of the barbarous: they have sown by spreading on stubble and were built to two inches with  Ransom.

All this after sowing, to set up a drought for six weeks. If you do not harrowing, all planted would have been lost this year (1898).

But thanks prăşitorilor, hoes and harrows, this year we had a wonderful harvest of spring crops.

Roots in our work with prăşitorile or leveling with straight, not curved.

Sapele have cut inside voids, through holes received to drain and dust of uniform soil cover, and not to make piles, which soil and produces dezgoleşte dryness and cracks formation.

Over the longer he added a little digging, narrow and elongated, with which breed plants on line, where it does not fit mattock. But dig this cover the soil with a layer of loose soil and ensure the fruit.

Since I myself muşuroirea plants, as this process is unveiling the ground and cause of the cracks and drying soil while the plant pieririi.

In doing so, I get off so good that 30 quintals / ha fruit I consider as average.

In many good years I get 60 quintals / ha, but would receive more if I have the original varieties as abroad.

(For comparison, the average grain is collected 9-11 quintals / ha (from 4-5, which happens more often to 20, in very rare cases). I mean four to five times more than they sow. However, straw is always produced two times more than beans. Ovsinski's fruit to achieve this state up to 50).

In our ears include 40 grains, and abroad have good varieties include 100-120 grain ears. Of course these varieties will bear fruit 2-3 times better.

The new seeding system, provided by a careful selection will increase our specele will give us such fruits in the future, which I never dreamed in the past.

In particular, if together with the new soil tillage and sowing, we will strictly observe the rules of crop rotation. "

Ten years Ovsibski tested its new system. The results proved to be amazing.

In 1898 he made a report from Kiev. Then edited the book with great difficulty.

This book rocked the farmers mind and over ten years, was reissued four times in Russia.

It is noteworthy that the first such role Mulching tips organic natural channels of the structure of soil and tillage is binding, twenty years before he exposed Ovsinski DI Mendeleev.

In France, the Netherlands and Germany were also followers of this system, each receiving 20-44 q / ha of grass.

Ovsinski country never deeper than 5 cm.

The main advantage of the system was its exceptional stability and to crops to drought and excess moisture.

Every time he planted his neighbors were not rising at all compromised or grains, fruits Ovsinski excellent collection, which were two times higher than the fruits of those times.

As time passed, he grew the crop.

Ovsisnski's method was tested for five years on two experimental plots in southern Ukraine and has not shown clear advantages.

They tested it and many households - however, with large deviations, and results were also not relevant.

Two years in a row to inspect his fields Ovsinski VA Bertenson specialist instructed the Ministry of Agriculture, he noted the many advantages of technology and excellent condition of the fields, especially those with corn, which grew to three meters "and bind 8-10 large ears. "

However, Bertenson not recommend for wide implementation system.

Quite cleverly responded to Ovsinski Preanişnikov DN. Studying the principles and doing the necessary experiments, he concluded: "... Any method is good at it. Deep plowing is necessary during wet year to accumulate water during dry but to preserve moisture, topsoil work is indicated.

A fairly precise definition of the essence - if not also know that accumulates near the soil moisture better.

In 1909 the department of agronomy at the University of Kiev for various reasons brought on by Ovsisnski vehement criticism, calling his book as a confused and stupid.

Presenting a series of theoretical objections, Ovsinski's opponents claimed that his results are therefore made previously exclusive deep plowing his land.

An argument, as you see, quite funny, but then, his teaching was devalued and forgotten Ovsinski.

And just over half a century, thanks to the work of TS Malţev experiments in southern Ukraine were reviewed and found to have been followed in their Ovsinski's system.


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